What is the difference between electric vehicle lithium battery and lead-acid battery


Electric vehicles have become a must-have for our trave […]

Electric vehicles have become a must-have for our travel. They are not only more convenient and environmentally friendly. Many people have some questions when choosing electric vehicle batteries. What is the difference between lithium batteries and lead-acid batteries?

Real lithium ions mainly rely on the movement of lithium ions between the positive electrode and the negative electrode to work. During the charging and discharging process, lithium ions are intercalated and deintercalated back and forth between the two electrodes: when recharging the battery, lithium ions are deintercalated from the positive electrode and inserted into the negative electrode through the electrolyte, and the negative electrode is in a lithium-rich state; the opposite is true during discharge. Generally, batteries containing lithium elements are used as electrodes. At this stage, the most negative electrodes are graphite.

The electrodes of lead-acid batteries are mainly made of lead and its oxides, and the electrolyte is a sulfuric acid solution. When a lead-acid battery is charged, the main component of the positive electrode is lead dioxide and the main component of the negative electrode is lead; in the discharged state, the main component of the positive and negative electrodes are lead sulfate.

1. Safety comparison: Power-type lithium batteries (lithium manganate, lithium iron phosphate) have different safety materials. Lead-acid battery technology is quite mature, and the safety is higher than that of lithium batteries.

2. Environmental protection comparison: Lithium batteries have no pollution (mostly), while lead-acid batteries have heavy metal lead pollution. Therefore, electric vehicles using lead-acid batteries will still pollute the environment.

3. Price comparison: The price of lithium batteries with the same capacity on the market is more than double that of lead-acid batteries. This is why electric cars using lithium batteries are more expensive.

4. Weight and size: Compared with lead-acid batteries of the same capacity on the market, lithium batteries are 2/3 the volume of lead-acid batteries and weigh about 1/3 of the weight of lead-acid batteries. Lithium batteries of the same volume have higher capacity than lead-acid batteries, and the reduction in weight increases the endurance of electric vehicles by about 10%.

5. Self-discharge rate comparison: The monthly self-discharge of lithium batteries is less than 3%, while that of lead-acid batteries is 15-30%, which is quite different.

6. Comparison of service life: The current general lithium iron phosphate charge is 1500 times without memory effect, and about 85% of the storage capacity after 1500 times; while the lead-acid battery is about 500 times, the storage capacity will be greatly reduced, and the memory effect It is clear. Therefore, the battery life of electric vehicles using lithium batteries will be longer.

7. Voltage platform comparison: Lithium battery voltage platform is greater than 3V, lead-acid battery is 2V.

8. Comparison of discharge characteristics: Simply put, when a battery with the same capacity is discharged at a large current, a lithium battery discharges about 30% more electricity than a lead-acid battery.

Through the above comparison, we can see that both lithium batteries and lead-acid batteries have their own advantages. When we choose electric vehicle batteries, we can choose according to our own needs. After all, the best that suits us is the best. However, in the daily use process, no matter what kind of battery, we need to pay attention to maintenance in order to increase its service life and be more conducive to our travel.